These were large states enabled by the introduction of iron mining, smelting and the metal forging skills that enabled clearing of forests for cultivation and a more efficient use of the then existing resources . The empire of Mali was founded by Sundiata , a king who not only overcame external enemies but his own physical disabilities to construct an empire second only to the vast Mongol horde of Asia. Adding to the centralized government created by Sunni Ali, he appointed officials to serve as ministers of the treasury, army, navy, and agriculture. Matrilineal inheritance and the powerful position of women were constant features of traditional Saharan society. Songahi , the last of these three great empires, remained from CE. The Empire of Ghana thrived on the wealth of gold.
The rich African history from these kingdoms is a rich literature that is not only educative but a source of ancient history. By BCE the nation had massively expanded capturing control of the region of upper Niger and Senegal rivers. Consistency in these fields helped him consolidate power. Retrieved February 22, , from World Civilizations Web site: Empires of Medieval West Africa:
The modern country was named after liberation from colonization—choosing a name of one of the great African empires was symbolic of African independence and success. The backbone of Songhai power was the mighty Niger River.
The Tarikh as-Sudan, a history book that was written in the 17th ghhana, claims that by the time the Arabs came Ghana had already been ruled by 22 different kings. No images or files uploaded yet.
The supreme ruler duties were to administer justice, stipulate laws and declare war or peace with the assistance of the council of state elders .
Sandal Wood Lion Carving. During his year rule, Askia Muhammad proved to be an 27 Ibid, On the contrary, the scorched-earth policy anc empire building and the role of the jihad ultimately fed the decline of these kingdoms. The people of Ghana traded the gold with the European and other African attests in ancient times by using self developed gold mining techniques .
Epic World History: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
However, this trade remained infrequent and irregular because of the harsh desert conditions. The ancient empires of Ghana. In the Sahel, this holy war took the shape of a campaign against Ghana.
The government controlled the gold and salt trade levying tax from the trade sustaining stable governments. Maloy 2 months, 3 weeks ago. In his rule, Islam became more entrenched, the trans-Saharan trade was more flourished and the Saharan salt mines were brought under his empire.
Mali came next and lasted from CE. Evaluate the factors which contributed to the rise and fall of the Ancient African Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai. The imports usually included products like textiles, ornaments and other materials.
Sub-Saharan African Civilizations: Ghana, Mali and Songhai
The successors of Sundjata, including a former palace slave named Sakura, expanded and consolidated the empire, conquering the cities of Timbuktu and Gao.
Adding to the centralized government created by Sunni Ali, he appointed officials to serve as ministers of the treasury, army, navy, and agriculture. Under his rule he brought much wealth to the empire controlling trade routes in western Africa, he is credited for making jenne and Timbuktu centers of learning in west Africa. Sunni Ali built a professional army that had a riverboat fleet of war canoes and a mobile fighting force on horseback.
It could have started earlier, however. Ghana There is still much we do not know about the ancient kingdom of Ghana. He also standardized systems of weights, measures, and currency. Remember me on this computer. Using the message of Islam to rally his followers, he expanded the borders of Songhai into the east of Africa, ma,i his empire with the Indian Ocean trade that went as far as China. Although that may be an exaggeration, Askia and the river people of the Niger created a kali and magnificent empire that was not seriously threatened until the invention of firearms.
The region was as a result converted to a slave exporting zone selling the slaves to the America and Europe region. The chronicler Al-Maqrizi said that he paid so much gold in his purchases of fabrics, slaves, and provisions that he caused the value of gold currency abd Cairo to drop dramatically. Sundjata, the hero, seemed to have both the power of Allah and the traditional African nature gods on his side.
Click here to sign up. After his victory Sundjata united the Mandinke chieftains and gained control over all the southern ends of the trans-Saharan trading routes. oj
Following the successful attacks on Timbuktu by the Tuaregs Gao became the capital of the expanding Songhay by AD leading to the fall of Mali empire and the ultimate malii of the Songhay empire  .
These changes called for new forms of social organization, contributing to the development of centralized, powerful empires.